Wednesday, 24 October 2012

Controversial Issues in Genetic Testing

Afflict: Cause pain or suffering.
AncestryThe descendants or blood relative of one individual. 
Blood clottingA process in which liquid blood changes into a semisolid (a blood clot).
Carrier: An individual who does not show symptoms of a disease but has the genes for it and can transfer it to his/her child.
Cell (human): In biology, a structure surrounded by a membrane and containing genetic material (DNA) on the inside. Considered by most biologists to be the basic unit of life.
Chromosome: In organisms without a nucleus (such as bacteria), this is a circular DNA molecule used in genetic engineering. In organisms with a nucleus (including plants and humans), this is one of the threadlike structures within the nucleus that contains DNA.
Conduct: To act, guide, or manage (usually conduct research or experiments).
Convict: To find or prove (someone) guilty of an offense or crime, especially through the verdict of a court.
Destiny: Fate. A future that an individual cannot control.
Detect: To notice; to find; often used to describe the discovery of a disease.
Devastating: Terrible; causing great harm.
DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid) A molecule in the form of a double helix , found within a structure known as a chromosome, within the nucleus of every living cell. First discovered in the 19th century, it controls the daily operation of a cell, and provides the genetic "blueprint" for the physical characteristics of all living organisms.
DNA testing: The analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and proteins in order to detect the presence or potential presence of an inheritable disease.
Ethics: A set of principles of proper conduct. A system of moral values.
Extinct: No longer existing or living.
Gene: A small stretch of DNA that directs the production of proteins. A hereditary unit that occupies a specific position (locus) on the chromosome. This unit has a specific effect on the physical characteristics of the organism and can house one of many different allele forms (each allele causes a different trait).
Genealogy: A record or chart of a person’s extended family going back many generations; a family tree.
Genetic make-up: All the chromosomes and the information they contain. The genes of an individual.
Genetic testing: The checking of an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease, either in the individual or his/her children.
Gene therapy (human): Insertion of normal DNA directly into cells to correct a genetic defect.
Gene transfer: The movement of genetic material (DNA) from the laboratory into a human subject.
Human genome: The full collection of genes in a human being.
Human genome project: The scientific project to "read" the DNA of human chromosomes. Consists of not one project, but rather hundreds of separate research projects conducted throughout the world. The objective is to create a directory of the genes that can be used to answer questions such as what specific genes do and how they work..
Immune system: A system which protects the body from disease causing agents.
Inherited disease: A disease or disorder that is inherited genetically.
Liver: An organ in the body which helps with metabolism, digestion, detoxification, and elimination of substances from the body.
Malignant cells: Cells that grow uncontrollably.
Obesity: The condition of having excessive body fat.
Paralysis: The loss of motor functions; the inability to move one´s muscles.
Pharmaceutical companies: Companies that make drugs or medicines.
Potential: 1. Possible. 2. Able to grow and develop.
Side effect: An unexpected, usually undesirable reaction to a medicine or therapy.
Tissue sample (human): A small portion of a group of similar cells taken for research of medical purposes.
Trial: The formal presentation of evidence and arguments when a person is accused of a crime.
Undergo: To experience; to endure; to suffer.

No comments:

Post a Comment