Monday, 18 April 2011


Sound a warning – make an alarm

mould – type of fungus

misuse – use badly

prompt – inspire, provoke

stand alongside – be together

(penicillin + antibiotics it inspired) + vaccinations = greatest medical inventions

strain - sub-species

a fair understanding a good understanding

dealt with worked on, tackled, handled, overcome

laziness not energetic, opposite of active

sheer ordinary, only

nullify counteract, make zero

threat menace

gnaw chew, eat e.g. a bone

gnaw away slowly eat, slowly reduce

press push

colds mild sickness, (cough, sneeze, runny nose)

seldom harmed not often injure

to rid to send away, to throw out, to expel

breeding grounds areas that encourage reproduction

prescribed given

finish the course take all the pills

over the counter for example - in a shop

reaction vessel like a test tube in a laboratory, a place to promote reactions

nor (neither, nor – not one, not the other)

livestock animals on a farm

healthy not sick

chronic extreme

worse bad, worse, worst

troublesome difficult, make trouble

vast very big

calculus mathematical calculation, algorithm

think-tank organisation of clever people producing new ideas

force to turn make someone change

point out highlight

drug bill cost of drugs

ubiquity found everywhere

dearer more expensive

burden load, weight to carry

resonance relevance

pump out empty a container of liquid

manage the trick do something difficult

cosseted protected from harm (like a baby)

wholly completely

laid out presented, explained

elevated higher

rein in control, decrease ( a rein is part of a harness, to control a horse)

dosing measures

diluted added water, less pure

a decade hence in 10 years

Aid agencies, charities – Caritas, e.g. Oxfam, Unicef, Red Cross...

safeguard safety measures

counterfeit fake

substandard low quality – below standard

unwitting innocent

mushrooming growing very quickly, like a mushroom

popped taken, consumed

paramount most important

sterner more strict

against the grain like cutting meat or wood – one direction is easy (with the grain) the other direction is hard (against the grain)

weapons instruments for fighting (swords, guns, etc...)

armoury store for weapons

slogan motto, saying, statement

cure make better

breakthrough radically different

never been bettered remains the best

huge sums lots of money, $$$$$$

empty-handed without success

target aim, goal, objective

screening testing

pipeline series ( a pipeline carries liquids, but in this case is the series of drugs in various stages of testing before commercial release)

forgivable not hold responsible

so less forgivable – more guilty

boutique specialised

emporia large organisation

gains profits, advantages

soluble can be solved

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